The GENERAL AMERICAN and GENERAL BRITISH Pronunciations of English. This is an undertaking in progress to identify. General American and the General British accents of English. These. are the two most widely known and least regionally affiliated varieties. English pronunciation. Consequently they are the two chosen as models by most of those who feel inclined to aim at. English. Many people seem to have.
General American and. General British pronunciations. From the point of view of mutual. Intelligent adults, although they.
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For that matter, this goes for. English among educated people. Even so it has been.
Consequently. constructive advice or comment will be most gratefully received. CONTENTS INDEX1a.
Phonological Symbols FEATURES ABOVE THE WORD LEVEL2. Articulatory Settings and Voice Qualities. FEATURES AT WORD LEVEL (i)Rhythmic. Words ending - ary, - arily and - ery. Words ending - berry and - body.
Words ending - ess and (non- superlative) - est 1. Words ending - ham and - chester etc. Words ending - ine.
Words ending - on. Words ending - ony. Stressings of Relatively Extraneous Words. Gradation Words. FEATURES AT WORD LEVEL(ii)Phoneme Occurrences: Consonantal. Elisions and Insertions of /r/2. The lengths of vowels. Close front vowels not before /r/3.
Close front vowels before /r/3. The back mid and open vowels /. Diphthongs in general.
GB centring diphthongs. Special values of /t/4. Special values of /l/4. General American The term General American was introduced into the literature as. The English Language in America (Vol. George Philip Krapp (1.
It doesn't. include the speech of. US Atlantic seaboard or.
Canada nor what is traditionally called the. South. The term has been much used, widely. GA, from the nineteen thirties by J. Kenyon and. many others. It has been deprecated by some dialectologists but it is so convenient to us. This less than immediately transparent term. American. General British The term General British (abbreviation GB) was.
Windsor Lewis. Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of British. American English. Great Britain (which expression. United Kingdom, does not include Northern Ireland). This variety. is most numerously represented in the most densely populated southeastern region of England where it.
Great Britain. Very considerable numbers of these, moreover, have reached maturity without having spent any substantial. Large numbers of British speakers, though not in.
GB. usages. Few grown- ups who move to other parts of Britain are inclined. GB speech features of their new locality. The. more strongly regionally- affiliated varieties of British pronunciation. There are very large numbers of. Cruttenden been termed. Regional General British because. GB only by having such.
Other RGB speakers may differ from GB only by. General American, GB's normal usual concomitant is what one may call standard English grammar and, of course, the. GB and RGB. betoken at least a.
The highly controversial. Received Pronunciation' (a term more or less equatable with GB) is.
UK speakers is in. See Cruttenden's Gimson's Pronunciation of English p. Phonetiblog 4. 43 on this website ('A Notorious Estimate'). GB has been referred to. British phoneticians has been Daniel Jones's unfortunate 1. He had originally (in 1.
Standard Pronunciation' but came to sharply regret having done. He tried setting up the use of 'Public School. Pronunciation' at the first edition of his English Pronouncing Dictionary in 1. They are also. felt by many people to be embarrassingly patronising and/or parochial. It should be noted, however, that the Association doesnot accord official recognition to any such terms. Regarding this SSB, the. Southern is clearly unsuitably limited and the term.
Jones came to reject so very emphatically, is undesirably controversial. The IPA Handbook. GA- type American speech but no specimen of GB speech. One of a middle- aged GB.
Association's Journal at its Volume 3. Number 2. p. 2. 39 in 2. Received Pronuncation'. Wells's 1. 98. 2 Accents of English where at. From this it may be gathered that the Jonesian term 'RP' Wells chose to use in 1. GB are in effect synonymous.
The most full and up- to- date. GB is to be seen in Alan Cruttenden's unrivalled classic Gimson's.
Pronunciation of English which was most recently revised at. See especially its . Phonological Symbols. The phonological symbols used in this work have not.
GA and GB in such a way that as far as possible their. In. recast the symbol set he chose to use in his most extensive revision of the renowned Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary (EPD).
This work has latterly become renamed the Cambridge. English Pronouncing Dictionary. CEPD). Since 1. 97. British dictionary.
GB vowels have employed that revised set of vowel symbols. It. embodied certain actually inessential (and, for some readers at least. English who were speakers of other languages. Such length marks have. GB transcriptions.
Instead of the two types of indication of. GA stressed and unstressed short schwas as /. Trager and Henry Lee Smith. Webster Third International Dictionary of 1. PDAE i. e. Knott Pronouncing Dictionary of American English.
This is also how they are given in the LPD i. Wells Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, and the CEPD i.
Cambridge. English Pronouncing Dictionary respectively as /. The relatively very minor differences between. GA and GB ranges of articulation of the vowelof such words as boat have been deliberately disregarded by. Wells, in. commenting on the way the Gimson 1. One very minor way in which the GA- GB differences may tend.
The latter type has been. Phoneme symbols. These vocalic phonemes are all common to GA & GB except for GB- only/. It is worth noting that J.
Wells in his 2. 01. Sounds Interesting remarked with regard to the use of differing symbols for the vowel of goat that are customary in transcriptions of GA and GB . In current mainstream GB the vowel in care, formerly a diphthong represented as /. Our revised notation for this phoneme at any rate. Our preferred way of indicating word.
Roger Kingdon and since employed notably in Cruttenden's Gimson's Pronunciation of English. Any. post- tonic tone will be indicated. On the greatest. number of occasions of contrast between the two types of pronunciation. GA and GB don't differ absolutely but only by favouring one alternative. Where it seems desirable to indicate that a. Where it. seems desirable to indicate.
Where it seems. desirable to indicate that a version is judged to be subvariant, i. What follows treats more of patterns than regularities and. Particular. subvariants may on the one hand be rare ones but on the other hand. Such cases make it a difficult even relatively. Intonation Certain intonation patterns may be said to. Americans than most GB speakers and vice.
Its use on. farewells eg Good `. GB is more likely.
GA to use an Alt (high level) plus (low to mid) Rise sequence on. Good. It's doubtful if it's. An example of that problem was to be found at Strevens 1. GA- GB intonational contrast was. One intonation tune that is specifically American and not British is.
Britain. He gave the examples . About twelve o'clock?
The woman with the bloodshot eye? It's doubtful if, however. GB speakers as spoken by other GB speakers. The remark may. well have been based on recollection of what Elizabeth Uldall referred.
The Intonation of. American English (1.
These seem also not at all necessarily American- sounding if. English accent. It's possible to. Americans say such a sentence as Do you `have such a thing as a 'teaspoon? The same applies to the Kingdon (Groundwork of English Intonation 1. Americans similarly often employ an. Alt (level) climax tone in such sentences as `Isn’t that 'pretty! The problem is that speakers have a wide range of tonal patterns.
It may well be that the. Also there has been.
A good deal has been. It is also perhaps worth mentioning that the intonation. Pike. (Intonationof American English 1. Selection of tones is very much a matter of individual. Admittedly one should begin to feel on.
American speaker constantly selecting wide rising- falling. New York or if a British speaker with perhaps Glasgow or (perhaps if. Wales. One very unusual though very minor difference occurs not in the intonations.
GA. speakers generally request repetition of something not apprehended by. Ex? They would usually say.
Articulatory Settings and Voice Qualities. There is a widespread impression. British speakers that American English in general is more nasal. British speech. Although this is no doubt a gross.
GA. speakers do more strongly than most GB speakers nasalise stressed. It's not unusual for GB speakers to employ even in. Similarly the phrase in which is often to be heard as . A very casual but not rare version of the word Anyway among GB speakers is as . In general it seems there is not a little yet to be learnt about just how. There are within the two varieties various other types of. There are certain subvarieties of both GA and.
GB which certainly have geographical limitations on their distributions. British speakers with a more regionally restricted diphthong.
Also mainly restricted to the southeast of. England is the very common use of a markedly longer than general.
This has. hardly ever if at all been remarked upon even among phoneticians who. British English phonetic topics. Other GB speakers in some cases use. Similarly the ending. Pre- Tonic Stresses Patterns of stressing before a word's. English. except that GA usually has weak and GB regularly has strong vowels in the first syllables of mosquito GA/m. Compare also presentation GA /'prizen`te.
In a small number of words GB has solely or predominantly schwa. GA has, either solely or mainly, uncentralised but otherwise. These include /a/ in baboon, bassoon, Ca`pri, fastidious. This pattern is reversed in curtail which is /k.
A GA later- than- GB pre- tonic stress occurs in improvisation, With. Early Tonic Stresses Earlier tonic stresses in GA than in GB.
As Kingdon remarked in his Groundwork. English Intonation (1. In various general vocabulary items GA has exclusively (.
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